Answered By: LibraryResearchTeam Lebanon
Last Updated: Jan 02, 2020     Views: 61

Oral Citation is the process of verbally citing the author or creator of the information used in a speech or presentation.


The reasoning behind oral citation is the same as written citations: to establishes the credibility of your information, acknowledge the work of the author, and to avoid plagiarism.


Whenever you present knowledge you learned from during your research, you should provide three key pieces of information: author, title, and date. This will provide enough information to help an audience member to later find the same articles you were looking at or to direct them to a particular location in a handwritten copy of your works cited.

Parts of an Oral Citation

Oral citations generally come at the beginning of a sentence right before you begin quoting or paraphrasing information from your research and should include the following:


Introductory Phrases/

Marker Verbs




Introduces your citation and connects it to the rest of the sentence

Author’s name and credentials (who they work for or what their job is).

May be a group, organization, or government agency instead of a single person..

State the title of the book, magazine, journal, website, etc.

When was this published?


These pieces of information can be shuffled around in order to help create an effective citation.




According to Erik Deluca, lecturer at the Iceland University of the Arts, in his 2016 article, “Wolf Listeners”...


In a 2017 web article called “Coping with Stress,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests


Lu Chen of Nankai University’s Economics School states in her 2014 article “Income-Related Children’s Health in Equality and Health Achievement in China” that...

Example Introductory Phrases

Example Marker Verbs

  • According to…
  • In the [article/book]...
  • [Author’s Name] [Marker Verb]...
  • Acknowledges
  • Argues
  • Asserts
  • Believes
  • Claims
  • Emphasizes
  • Notes
  • Observes
  • Points out
  • Reports
  • States
  • Suggests
  • Writes


Always consult your professor on their expectations for oral citations in presentations and refer to project instructions for further guidelines.

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